In , Szondi's family moved to Budapest , where Leopold was an excellent student, first in Greek and Latin and subsequently in medical school at the University of Budapest. In , as neuropsychiatrist and assistant to Paul Ranschburg, he published a series of analyses of personality based on constitutional and genetic factors; from , he worked in private practice. In charge of the state orthopedagogy program for secondary education from to , Szondi served as professor of psychopathology at Pazmany-Peter University Medical School and also served as director of the Royal Hungarian Institute for Psychopathology and Psychotherapy. A decade of research followed together with self-analysis in which Szondi developed his method as an extension of psychoanalysis.
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In contrast to Freud's work, Szondi's approach is based on a systematic drive theory   and a dimensional model of personality. That is, Szondi means to enumerate all human drives, classifying and framing them within a comprehensive theory. Szondi drive system is built on the basis of eight drive needs,   each corresponding to a collective archetype of instinctive action. The eight drive needs represent archetypes and are present in all individuals in different proportions; a fundamental assumption of Fate analysis is that the difference between mental "illness" and mental "health" is not qualitative but quantitative.
The four whole drives correspond to the four independent hereditary circles of mental illness established by the psychiatric genetics of the time:   the schizoform drive containing the paranoid and the catatonic drive needs , the manic-depressive drive, the paroxysmal drive including the epileptic and hysteric drive needs , and the sexual drive including the hermaprodite and the sadomasochist drive needs. Szondi's drive diagram has been described as his major discovery and achievement.
Szondi analysis of destiny approach is based an anthropological preoccupation. Fate analysis of a patient is based on the test score, the patient medical history, and his family background through a genealogical tree.
Fate analysis includes Genotropism , a form of depth psychology that had some prominence in Europe in the midth century, but has been ignored for the most part. The starting assumption of fate analysis is that a person's life destiny unfolds in a series of elections: one chooses an occupation, acquaintances, partners, family, and ultimately his decisions implicitly selects his illnesses and his death.
Szondi concluded that some life choices are genetically inherited. Szondi argued that his research showed that profession choices are determined by the dynamic and structure of the psyche, a phenomenon that he called operotropism. Of the many possibilities in which operotropism can manifest itself, he gave two examples. A man may choose a profession in which he can engage with individuals with related inclinations; this is the case of a psychiatrist with paranoid schizoform inclinations, or a lawyer with querulant inclinations and an addiction to litigation.
The second example of operotropism is a man that chooses a profession in which he can satisfy in a socially acceptable manner needs that in their original primary form would constitute a danger for society. This is the case of pyromania-firefighter, sadism-butcher, coprophilia-intestine or -drain cleaner. Jobs of the hermaphrodite type are hairdresser, esthetician , dermatologist , gynecologist , bath house , beauty parlor and spa worker, fashion illustrator , performing artist vaudeville , acrobat , circus performer , singer, ballet dancers, dance artists, servant , waiter, hotel manager , confectioner, cook.
The most socially positive professions are gynecologist and sexual pathologist. The work objects of the sadistic professions are animals, stone, iron, metal, machinery, soil, wood; the work circumstances are stall, slaughterhouse, animal breeding facilities, zoo, arena, mine, forest, mountain, operating theater, dissecting room; the main sensory perceptions are depth perception and muscle sense; work instruments are the primordial tools: ax , hatchet , pickaxe , chisel , hammer , drill , knife , whip ; the work activity is big muscle work.
Sadistic jobs type are truck driver , farm servant, animal tamer , veterinary , manicure , pedicure , animal slaughter , surgical nurse , surgeon, dentist, anatomist , hangman , forestry worker, lumberjack , stonemason , miner , road worker , sculptor, chauffeur , soldier, wrestler , physical education teacher, gym instructor , masseur.
The work objects of the katatonoid professions are the reproductive and abstract sciences: logic, maths, physics, aesthetics, geography, grammar, and so on; the work circumstances are closed spaces, classrooms, archives, libraries, " ivory towers ," monasteries; the sensory perceptions are turned off; work instruments are books; professional activities are writing, reading.
Personality traits found in this group are aristocratic exclusivity, eccletic friendship choices, systematizate, schematize, rigid formalism. Jobs of the schizoform, katatonic, drive striving k-: aesthetician , art critic ; accountant, lower officer, cartographer , technical drafter , graphic designer ; postal worker , telegraph operator ; printer ; farmer, forester ; lighthouse keeper , security guard; model.
Personality traits found in this group are pedantry, accuracy, exemplarity; lack of humor, taciturnity, brusqueness; phlegm, callousness, calm; hypersensitivity; obstinacy, stubbornness; Inability to debate, self-consciousness; narrow-mindedness, bigotry; compulsiveness, automation, mannerisms; Feeling of omnipotence, autism; inability to be absorbed in the other auto psychological resonance ; taciturnity, immobility, all-having.
Criminal, or most socially negative, activities of katatonic type are work aversion , lone vagrancy , world wanderer, burglary. On the other extreme of the spectrum, the most socially positive professions are professor, logician , philosopher, aesthetician , theoretical mathematician , physicist. The work objects of the paranoid professions are the pragmatic and analytic sciences psychology, psychiatry, medicine, chemistry , music, mysticism, mythology, occultism; the work circumstances are research institutes, labs, chemical factories, exotic places, the depths of the mind and of the Earth, mental hospital, prison; the main sensory perceptions are olfaction and hearing; work instruments are ideas, creativity, inspiration.
The hebephrenic group belongs to the schizoform professions and partially overlaps with the paranoid professions. Hebephrenic jobs include graphologist and astrologer. Jobs of the epileptiform, "Cain" striving e- include: porter bellhop , carter truck driver , sailor, able seaman , chauffeur , aviator; blacksmith , stoker , oven operator, chimney sweep , firefighter , pyrotechnician , baker; soldier especially flamethrowers , explosive departments like grenadier , pioneer , stormtrooper.
Criminal, or most socially negative, epileptiform activities are kleptomania , pyromania , crime of passion , while the most socially positive are religious professions, health care provider , forensic pathology. The work object of the hysteriform professions is the own person; the work circumstances are audience, theater, meeting, mass, street; work instruments and activities are playing with oneself, facial expressions, the voice, color and movement effects.
Jobs of the hysteriform group include: acting in females, amazons and tragic heroines roles ; politics professionals: member of parliament, chief of Bureau or in factory; car driver; animal tamer; market woman, town crier , barker ; performing artist vaudeville , acrobat , circus performer , orator; model; sports: swordsmanship , horseback riding , hunting , wrestling and mountain climbing.
A criminal, or most socially negative, epiletiform activity is impostor , while the most socially positive are politician, actor. It is a projective personality test , the same category of the most-known Rorschach test , but with the crucial difference of being nonverbal. The test consists in showing the examinee a series of facial photographs,  displayed in six groups of eight each.
All 48 subjects featured in the photographs are mental patients, each group containing a photo of a person whose personality had been classified as homosexual, a sadist , an epileptic , an hysteric , a katatonic , a paranoid , a depressive and a maniac. The subject is asked to choose the two most appealing and the two most repulsive photos of each group.
The choices will supposedly reveal the subject satisfied and unsatisfied instinctive drive needs, and the subject's dimensions of personality. Szondi believed that people are inherently attracted to people similar to them [ citation needed ].
His theory of genotropism states that there are specific genes that regulate mate selection, and that similarly-gened individuals would seek each other out. To interpret the test scores, a variety of methods have been developed by Szondi himself and other researchers.
They can be classified as quantitative, qualitative and proportional methods. Szondi said that from a sociological perspective, the most important discovery made through fate psychology has been operotropism, that is the discerning of the role played by latent inherited genes genotropic factors in the choice of a particular vocation or profession. The test was first formulated by Szondi around In , Szondi published Schicksalsanalyse "Fate analysis" , the first of a five volume series.
First results of this research were published in Szondi condensed the syndromatics into a table called Testsymptome zur Bestimmung der 17 Existenzformen test symptoms for the identification of the 17 existence forms , which was published in Szondiana VI and in the final edition of book 2 However, the table alone is not sufficient, as analysis of the forms existence still demands "solid knowledge and practice of Syndromatik", in addition to thorough training in Fate Analysis thinking.
The shock element of the photos is crucial. Commenting an experiment with alternative pictures of mental patients, Szondi argued that since the photos used were nicer or less disturbing, they failed to trigger the responses that the test is supposed to.
The Szondi test is not widely used in modern clinical psychology, because its psychometric properties are weak. However, it remains in the history of psychology as one of the well-known psychological instruments, although its use today is marginal, being replaced by modern psychological instruments, with good psychometric properties.
In , the international Szondi Society was established, and holds a symposium every three years. Szondi's main work is his five volume series on fate analysis Schicksalsanalyse. They were first published from volume one to volume five. The first two were later republished in multiple revised editions. They are:. In , after finishing the fifth volume, he published Introduction to Fate Analysis ; it is a short book that collects conferences he held at the University of Zurich the previous year, with the aim of introducing to a larger public the most important results of his research.
It is undeniable that Szondi has a fundamentally anthropological preoccupation. It is why his work has, up to now, undoubtedly found a more favourable echo among philosophers Henri Niel, Alphonse De Waelhens, and Henry Maldiney than among psychoanalysts and psychiatrists, for whom his work is a great challenge.
A drive system must give us a synthetic sight of the whole of the drive activities, comparable to the total impression which white light gives us, but it must also make it possible to display 'the spectrum' of the drives just like light can be divided in colours. It is an extremely difficult task and it is not at all astonishing that we have not yet arrived at this point.
Being different from the other projective tests, the Szondi Test contains its own theory; that is intrinsic to it. The major discovery of Szondi resides in his drive diagram Triebschema since this diagram presides as well over the construction and working of the test as also to the theoretical elaboration of the empirical data resulting from the test experimentation.
The choice reveals what situations are approved or reproved, or the ones that evinced indifference from the examinee. Szondi wished to show with his test, that the choices made by the individual denounce the satisfied or unsatisfied instinctive needs and the reactions linked to instinctive unsatisfied inclinations. So blieb aber die notwendige Schockwirkung weg. In other words, by means of choice reactions the Szondi test aims directly at the unconscious sphere of psychic events.
This goal is in contrast with graphology, which first analyzes phenomenologically the subject's behavior. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Hungarian.
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In contrast to Freud's work, Szondi's approach is based on a systematic drive theory   and a dimensional model of personality. That is, Szondi means to enumerate all human drives, classifying and framing them within a comprehensive theory. Szondi drive system is built on the basis of eight drive needs,   each corresponding to a collective archetype of instinctive action. The eight drive needs represent archetypes and are present in all individuals in different proportions; a fundamental assumption of Fate analysis is that the difference between mental "illness" and mental "health" is not qualitative but quantitative. The four whole drives correspond to the four independent hereditary circles of mental illness established by the psychiatric genetics of the time:   the schizoform drive containing the paranoid and the catatonic drive needs , the manic-depressive drive, the paroxysmal drive including the epileptic and hysteric drive needs , and the sexual drive including the hermaprodite and the sadomasochist drive needs.
Szondi, Leopold (1893-1986)
Bridge between human and natural sciences. The book has been on my mind quite a while and shall still be so. You know: to save freedom, guilt and merit, Schopenhauer transfers them from operari to esse. Man with his fate therefore is also what he has chosen to be. I cannot enter further into the profound and sharp witted thoughts of the book in pros and cons. It's refused to me.