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Abbreviations AE Akk. BE dem. Englisch Akkusativ Adjektiv Adverb brit. Englisch demonst rat iv feminin Genitiv indeklinabel Komparation Konjunktion Modalverb maskulin neutrum Nomen Person PlUral Pronomen Prpos ition Singular Verb int ransiti ves Verb reflexives Verb trans itives Verb reziprok American English accusative adjective adverb British English demonstrative feminin genitive indeclinable comparition conj unction modal verb masculine neuter noun person plural pronoun preposition singular verb intransitive verb reflexi ve Verb transitive verb reciprocal Pronunciation see p.
No part of this material may be reproduced in any form without the permission of the publ ishers. Print ed in Germany. VII Why these Words? X Notes. Any st udent learning a foreign language must master a certain vocab ulary base before he or she can communicate or read in that language.
Acqu isiti on of that base vocabulary requir es st udy, often outside of t he c1assroom setti ng. Langenscheidt' s Basic German Vocabul ary is designed to facilit ate the acquisition of that core vocabulary in the easiest and most effic ient manner possible. It is meant for use by beginning learners wit h no previous knowledge of t he German language, by more advanced st udents as a review and for test preparation, and by anyone as preparation for pleasure or busi ness travel into a German- speaking country.
Those who have successf ully worked t hrough Langenscheidt ' s Basic German Vocabulary will have the necessary knowledge to functi on and communicate in all everyday sit uat ions in German. Whya "Basic Vocabulary"? St udent s rightfully ask, which words do I have t o learn in order to carry on an everyday conversation or read a text written for the average German speaker?
The magic answer is usually 2, wor ds, i. Langenscheidt' s "Basic German Vocabul ary" contai ns two times 2, words. The division of the t hematically-organized entr ies int o two groups, "1- 2," and "2, 4,", identifi es for the learner those wor ds which should be learned immediately and those which can be reserved for seco nd level learning.
Once they have mast ered the first 2, words, st udents have the opt ion of increasing their vocabulary over a wide subject range, or concent rat ing on spec if ic areas of interest , such as law, economics, etc. Why a bilingual "Basic Vocabulary"? The use of the target language to teach the language is the norm in most programs t oday. Usually a new word is explained in simple German and illust rated wit h practica l examples. The pract ical teac hing sit uation, however, requires flexibility in using the native language, especially when difficult concepts need to be clarified.
The Basic Vocabulary is only meant to serve as a supplement for study and learning. Why these words? Langenscheidt 's Basic Vocabulary selects the most important words for a student to learn and use. The Basic Vocabulary is based on evaluation of numerous lists of basic German vocabulary publi shed in Germany, Aus- tria, Swit zerland and other countries. All the important sources of informa- tion on word frequency in written and spoken German were considered.
An exact source list would go beyond the purpose of this introduction. For those interested, we mention here the vocabulary statistics of Kaeding, Meier, Ortmann, the Mannheimer Korpus 1 and 2, the Bonner Zeitungs- korpus and the minimum vocabulary lists prepared by the Council of Europe, vocabulary for the "Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" Certifi- cate of German as a Foreign Language , the "Deutscher Volkshochschul - verband" German Adult Education Association and the Goethe Institute.
The choice of words was not based only on frequency. Factors such as how familiar and useful a word is in everyday conversation were also considered. Langenscheidt' s experience in producing dictionaries and teaching materials also helped.
The critical choi ce of example sentences was made by native speakers on an outside of our regular staff. How is the "Basic Voca6ulary" arranged?
Words and expressions in Langenscheidt' s Basic Vocabulary German are arranged by t opi c, not simply in alphabetical order. Educational research indicates that trying to learn words alphabetically is not effective. Similari- ties in orthography lead to confusion and spelling errors.
Most impor- tantly, words are very difficult to learn without context and topic. Alphabe- tical arrangement can become an obstacle to correct use in a specific thematic situation. Learning basic words in subject areas is easier and more effective. The contextual relationships among words and the physi- cal proximity of words on the page encourage the development of associat ions in memory.
For all these reasons, we emphasize learning in subject areas. In addition to the t hemat ic present ati on, all ent ries are present ed contex- tually, i. The presentati on of the basic word in sentences is important because t he learner sees the word used correctly. The danger of using the word later in the wra ng context will di sapp ear.
Exampl e sentences often can be used word-for-wo rd because they are taken frorn common every- day speech an represent frequentl y used idiomatic express ions. In the Workb ook t o the Basic Vocabul ary there are furth er examples ot usage.
In each of the sampi e sentences, care has been taken so t hat the vocabulary used, as far as possibl e, does not include any words beyond those found in the basic vocabulary.
It is left up to the learner whet her to st udy only wi t h the Basic Vocabul ary or to do furth er exercices tor vocabul ary building. For a qui ck and certain expansion of the vocabulary, we recommend the use of the workbook as weil as the t ext.
Systemat ic work wit h the two volumes creat es a certain confi dence in vocabulary building which helps the acquisit ion of new words. Although gender information and irregul ar verb forms are given next to the basic word, the text and Workbook are not meant to repl ace, but rather supplement , the use of a dicti onary and grammar book.
In some cases a word has various meanings which are clarified in the sampie sentences. Fuball ist bei uns di e beliebt est e Sport art. For example, ther e are seldom-used forms of verbs that learners will not find here because they are not necessary for acqui ring a basic knowledge of the language. There are also very few techni cal words included; onl y the common meanings of words are given.
Likewi se, the Basic Vocabul ary includes only a handful of the many compound words so common in German. But a solid knowledge of basic vocabulary should enable a learner to understand and build a wider vocabulary of compound words.
How to Work wit h the "Basic Vocabulary"? Here are nine suggestions for working with the material: 1. Learn the words in the "," group first. Take advantage of the arrangement by subject area. Don't work on a page-by-page basis, but try t o cover one t opi c at a time e. The words of a subject area cont ain assoc iations which aid memorization. Use the designati ons of subject areas as learning aids.
Work through the individual categories one by one, first covering those whose topi cs most appeal to you. Always review each category already covered after worki ng on a new category. Set up your own learning system. Learn the amount of material that best suits you. Read an item the main word in bold pri nt with its example sentences and memorize the category the word belongs in.
Go through eight to ten words thi s way. Then cover the left column and repeat aloud the covered words. If you wish, also read aloud the sampie sentence. Check your progress by uncovering the left column. Work through your "set" thi s way. Make a mark in the left margin next to the words you haven't memorized yet and work on just those words.
For the final check of each "set ", speak and write every word again. Vary your study habit s: Cover the right column instead of the left , and work as described in suggestion 4 above.
Only learn the example senten- ces that help fix the meaning of the words in your memory. You can also take an indi vidual word that you have had to look up in an alphabetical list , put it in a category, and learn it in a meaningful context.
Every day learn a specific amount, t aking breaks in between each session. In a few weeks you will have systemat ically learned a core vocabulary; the actual amount of vocabulary items depends on you.
Don't forget t o repeat and t est yourself at regular intervals. Langenscheidt' s Basic Vocabul ary German is independent of specific textbooks. It is suitable, however, for reviewing the vocabulary leamed in a course, in order to: a prepare the appropriate vocabulary before free communication exercises or going through certain reading texts; b work on vocabulary areas after worki ng through a specific text whose various part s include this word field: c develop and expand from a single word to a complete vocabulary category.
You can also arrange the topics and word families accord ing to the material you have just leamed in the chapters of the t extbook. Langenscheidt' s Basic Vocabul ary German and its Workbook have a very practi cal format. You can leam anywhere, whenever you have time.
For exarnple, why not review the chapter "Traffic" in the bus going t o or from work? Good luck and have fun! Notes: For regular nouns, the pronunciation, the gender, the genitive and nomi - nat ive plural forms are provided after the basic word. Only irregul ar forms of the plural are spelled out.
For example: Ball [bai] m, - S, Blle For verbs, three forms: present infinitive, first person singular of the imperfeet , and third person singular wit h haben or sein, are presented. Aft er that come the various possibi lities for using it in transiti ve or reflexive forms. There are also examples of common preposi tions used with it. Ich habe mich fr die Prfung an- gemeldet. I' ve signed up for the test.
XII Not all the possibilities of using a verb are included , just the most frequent.
Langenscheidt online dictionaries
Abbreviations AE Akk. BE dem. Englisch Akkusativ Adjektiv Adverb brit. Englisch demonst rat iv feminin Genitiv indeklinabel Komparation Konjunktion Modalverb maskulin neutrum Nomen Person PlUral Pronomen Prpos ition Singular Verb int ransiti ves Verb reflexives Verb trans itives Verb reziprok American English accusative adjective adverb British English demonstrative feminin genitive indeclinable comparition conj unction modal verb masculine neuter noun person plural pronoun preposition singular verb intransitive verb reflexi ve Verb transitive verb reciprocal Pronunciation see p. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form without the permission of the publ ishers. Print ed in Germany. VII Why these Words?
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Langenscheidt's Basic German Vocabulary presents the most frequently used words in an easily accessible format:. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Would you like to tell us about a lower price?
As a young man travelling around Europe, Gustav Langenscheidt — , founder of the renowned language resource publisher Langenscheidt, discovered just how important the knowledge of foreign languages is for successful communication. For more than one hundred and sixty years, Langenscheidt has been offering a broad range of products to language learners, professionals and enthusiasts. In many areas, the publishing products have been highly innovative and ground-breaking. In the early 20th century from , the publisher was already developing language learning vinyl records. In the s, Langenscheidt came up with the first pocket calculators with a dictionary function in four languages. Numerous other digital products followed: handhelds, CDs, e-books, apps and online products. In a constantly changing world, languages are also constantly evolving.