The Tripitaka is the most sacred scripture for Buddhists all over the world. Although they try to depict in various terms what exactly is the content of Buddhism, none has been accurate as the Tripitaka. It contains the unmodified, true teachings of Lord Buddha in its actual context. The Tripitaka is a tri-fold writing. History reveals that the Tripitaka was coordinated at the First Council of the Maha Sangha soon after the parinirvana passing away of Lord Buddha, in order to preserve his teachings which had been only memorized up to that moment.
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While many of these have been treasured and memorized by devout Buddhists around the world for centuries, others have never left the private domain of Pali scholars; some have yet to be translated into English.
The Path of Discrimination Patisambhidamagga is the richest discourse by Arahant Sariputta Thera on the Buddha's Teachings in the questions-and-answers format. Warder succinctly described the most important feature of this great work by saying : "it expounds the way or path of 'discrimination' in its various aspects and tries to show exactly how understanding takes place in a practical sense, not simply in theory.
The book consists of thirty treatises. The following books are included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka; in the Sinhala and Thai editions they are regarded as paracanonical. The books above marked with "[?? Comments for these books are drawn entirely from other sources:. Availability of English translations: Print: Print editions of many of the books in the Khuddaka Nikaya are widely available from various sources. See the listings below under each book for some recommended editions.
On-line: The links below will take you to recommended translations of texts from the Khuddaka Nikaya that are available on this website and elsewhere on the Internet. Khuddakapatha — The Short Passages A collection of nine short passages that may have been designed as a primer for novice monks and nuns. It includes several essential texts that to this day are regularly chanted by laypeople and monastics around the world of Theravada Buddhism.
These passages include: the formula for taking refuge ; the ten precepts ; and the Metta , Mangala , and Ratana suttas. Dhammapada — The Path of Dhamma This much-beloved collection of short verses has been studied and learned by heart over the centuries by millions of Buddhists around the world.
Availability of English translations: Print: Scores of English translations exist. Oxford: Oxford university Press, Udana — Exclamations A rich collection of short suttas, each of which culminates in a short verse uttered by the Buddha. Here you will find the parable of the blind men and the elephant Ud 6. Many gems here! Ireland, trans. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society , On-line complete translations : Anandajoti Bhikkhu, trans.
Itivuttaka — The Thus-saids A collection of short suttas, in mixed prose and verse form, each of which addresses a single well-focused topic of Dhamma. The Itivuttaka takes its name from the Pali phrase that introduces each sutta: iti vuttam Bhagavata, "Thus was said by the Buddha.
On-line: Translations by Thanissaro complete and Ireland excerpts. Norman, trans. Saddhatissa, trans. London: Curzon press, On-line: Translation by Thanissaro complete. Vimanavatthu — Stories of the Celestial Mansions 83 poems, each explaining how wholesome deeds led to a particular deity's rebirth in one of the heavenly realms. Horner, trans.
Oxford: Pali Text Society , On-line: Selected suttas. Petavatthu — Stories of the Hungry Ghosts 51 poems, each explaining how unwholesome deeds led to the rebirth of a being into the miserable realm of the "Hungry Ghosts" peta.
These verses depict — in often heart-breaking detail — the many hardships these men and women endured and overcame during their quest for Awakening, and offer deep inspiration and encouragement to the rest of us.
Rhys Davids and K. On-line: Selections from the Theragatha and Therigatha by various translators. Jataka — Birth Stories tales that recount some of the Buddha's former lives during his long journey as a Bodhisatta aspiring to Awakening. Cowell, ed. Niddesa — Exposition This book, traditionally ascribed to Sariputta, is a series of commentaries on sections of the Sutta Nipata. The first part, the Mahaniddesa , is a commentary on the Atthakavagga ; the second, the Culaniddesa, a commentary on the Parayanavagga and the Khaggavisana Sutta Sn 1.
Availability of English translations: Print: None known. Patisambhidamagga — Path of Discrimination An analysis of Abhidhamma concepts. On-line: None known. Apadana — Stories Biographies, in verse, of the Buddha, 41 Paccekabuddhas "silent" Buddhas , arahant bhikkhus and 40 arahant bhikkhunis.
Many of these stories are characterized by flowery paeans celebrating the glory, wonder, magnificence, etc. Availability of English translations: Print: Some excerpts are included in various volumes published by the Pali Text Society. Cariyapitaka — Basket of Conduct Stories, in verse, of 35 of the Buddha's previous lives. These stories, purportedly retold by the Buddha at Ven.
Sariputta's request, illustrate the Bodhisatta's practice of seven of the ten paramis perfections. Nettippakarana Nagasena and the Bactrian Greek king Milinda Menander.
The king, a philosopher and skilled debater, poses to Ven. Nagasena one question after another concerning the Dhamma, each of which Ven. Nagasena masterfully answers, often with unusually vivid and apt similes. Like so many stories from the Pali canon, this one has a happy ending: the king is so deeply inspired by Ven. Nagasena's wisdom that he converts to Buddhism, hands over his kingdom to his son, joins the Sangha, and eventually becomes an arahant himself.
Oxford: Pali Text Society , [2 vols. A paperback anthology of passages from I. Mendis, ed. On-line: Selected passages. Pesala's abridged translation is also available online. Notes 1. Frequently Asked Questions: A document containing a series of common questions and answers concerning a particular topic.
Sources The books above marked with "[?? Comments for these books are drawn entirely from other sources: The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction 4th ed. Documents linked from this page may be subject to other restrictions.
Last revised for Access to Insight on 21 December
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This nikaya consists of fifteen Thailand , fifteen Sri Lanka follows Buddhaghosa's list , or eighteen books Burma in different editions on various topics attributed to the Buddha and his chief disciples. Some of the other schools that included a Khuddaka Pitaka in their canons were the Mahisasaka , Dharmaguptaka and Mahasanghika. The Khuddaka Nikaya of the Theravada school is the only complete extant example of such a Khuddaka Pitaka. The Khuddaka Nikaya can easily be divided into two strata, one being early and the other late. The texts Khuddakapatha, Vimanavatthu, Petavatthu, Niddesa, Patisambhida, Apadana, Buddhavamsa and Cariyapitaka can be categorized in the later stratum.
Khuddaka Nikaya - Part 2 [vimanavatthu Pali and Petavatthu Pali] : Sutta Pitaka