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Less than three months after his inauguration as the seventh vice president in March , he succeeded Suharto who resigned after 31 years in office. His presidency is seen as a landmark and transition to the Reformation era.
Upon becoming president, he liberalized Indonesia's press and political party laws, and held an early democratic election three years sooner than scheduled, which resulted in the end of his presidency. His day presidency and day vice presidency are the shortest in the country's history.
Habibie was a native of Parepare , in South Sulawesi. Tuti Marini Puspowardojo,  a Javanese noblewoman from Yogyakarta ,  met while studying in Bogor. He was the fourth of eight children. In , Habibie returned to Indonesia for three months on sick leave. During this time, he was reacquainted with Hasri Ainun , the daughter of R. Mohamad Besari. The two married on 12 May , returning to Germany shortly afterwards.
In May they had a son, Ilham Akbar Habibie. Habibie later found employment with the railway stock firm Waggonfabrik Talbot , where he became an advisor in designing train wagons. In , Habibie delivered his dissertation in aerospace engineering and received the grade of "very good," giving him the title Doktoringenieur Dr.
The same year, he accepted Hans Ebner's offer to continue his research on Thermoelastisitas and work toward his Habilitation , but he declined the offer to join RWTH as a professor. His thesis about light construction for supersonic or hypersonic states also attracted offers of employment from companies such as Boeing and Airbus , which Habibie again declined. There, he developed theories on thermodynamics , construction, and aerodynamics known as the Habibie Factor, Habibie Theorem, and Habibie Method, respectively.
He worked for Messerschmitt on the development of the Airbus A B aircraft. In , he was promoted to vice president of the company. In , Suharto recruited Habibie to return to Indonesia as part of his drive to industrialize and develop the country.
Dirgantara Indonesia since He continued to play an important role in IPTN other "strategic" industries in this post. It pioneered a small passenger airplane, the N Gatotkaca , in , but the project was a commercial failure. By , Habibie oversaw ten state-owned industries including ship- and train-building, steel, arms, communications, and energy.
These three programs provided scholarships to thousands of high school graduates to earn their bachelor's degrees in the STEM fields and for other technical professionals to continue their study for master's and doctorate program in the United States, Europe, Japan, and other countries.
Habibie was, continuously, a member of six Indonesian cabinets for over 20 years. After his initial appointment in , he served in another five cabinets including the Development Reform Cabinet which, as president he formed after the resignation of Suharto in May :. In Suharto 's regime, as was expected of senior government executives, Habibie became a member of the Golkar organisation. Suharto appointed him as deputy daily coordinator for the chairman of the executive board in , and the following year he became the daily coordinator.
This modernist Muslim organization provided him with a political base, linked to but independent of the Suharto administration. In January , after accepting nomination for a seventh term as President, Suharto announced the selection criteria for the nomination of a vice president. Suharto did not mention Habibie by name, but his suggestion that the next vice president should have a mastery of science and technology made it obvious he had Habibie in mind. In that year, in the midst of the Asian Financial Crisis , this suggestion was received badly, causing the rupiah to fall.
Despite this, Habibie was elected as Vice President in March On 21 May , just two months into Habibie's vice presidency, Suharto announced his resignation. Habibie, as the Constitution says, succeeded him as president. The following day, Habibie announced the Development Reform Cabinet , which removed some of the most controversial ministers in Suharto's last cabinet while maintaining others - with no major figures from the opposition.
Within days of his appointment, he asked his relatives to resign from government positions, promised an early election, repealed some legislation, and ordered the release of political prisoners. Timorese independence forces led by the National Council of Timorese Resistance had been calling for a referendum in the territory for some time.
Its chief diplomat, Jose Ramos Horta , proposed a transitional period of autonomy leading up to a referendum. Wishing to avoid the impression that Indonesia ruled East Timor as a colony, Habibie surprised some by announcing that a referendum , offering a choice between special autonomy and independence, would be held immediately in East Timor.
On 30 August , the referendum was held and the East Timorese people overwhelmingly chose Independence. Subsequently, pro-Indonesia militias killed and displaced large numbers of people during the East Timorese crisis. It raised concerns about the veracity of the investigation by suggesting that the interrogation of Suharto was intended only for public appearances.
Under Habibie, the Indonesian government also began investigating and prosecuting Suharto's youngest son, Hutomo Mandala Putra commonly known as Tommy Suharto. Ghalib charged Tommy in December in conjunction with the Goro scandal, where the government, under pressure from Tommy, allegedly gave him a desirable parcel and below-market loan for the construction of a Goro supermarket.
However, Tommy was found innocent in the case after several key witnesses, including Habibie aide Rahardi Ramelan, changed their testimony and declared that the deal did not cause losses to the state.
Habibie's government stabilized the economy in the face of the Asian financial crisis and the chaos of the last few months of Suharto's presidency. In September , Habibie issued a 'Presidential Instruction' forbidding use of the terms pribumi and non-pribumi to differentiate indigenous and non-indigenous Indonesians. Additionally, he lifted restrictions on the teaching of Mandarin Chinese.
Under Habibie, Indonesia made significant changes to its political system that expanded competition and freedom of speech. Shortly after taking office, in June , Habibie's government lifted the Suharto-era restriction on political parties and ended censorship by dissolving the Information Ministry.
He also quickly committed to holding democratic elections, albeit on an initially vague timetable. In December, he proposed political reform laws that were passed by the legislature and MPR. These laws set elections for December , reduced the number of seats in parliament held by the military, and barred political activity by civil servants. However, political opponents criticized Habibie for allowing the military to retain some seats in parliament, and taking little action on other military and judicial reforms.
Habibie's government also passed laws which granted significant autonomy to regional governments, namely at the regency and city level. The laws resulted in indirect elections for mayors and regents, and allowed local legislatures to hold said executives accountable, though it was not implemented until after his presidency. Although he had been viewed as leading a transitional government, Habibie seemed determined to continue as president.
He was initially unclear about whether he would seek a full term as president when he announced parliamentary elections in June MPR members then began voting to decide if they would accept or reject his speech. Habibie attempted to win the support of the military by offering the vice-presidency to General Wiranto, but his offer was declined.
After relinquishing the presidency, Habibie spent more time in Germany than in Indonesia, though he was active during Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 's presidency as a presidential adviser. During this time, he established the Habibie Centre, an independent think tank.
The book recalled the events of May which led to his rise to the Presidency. In early September , he was admitted to Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital , where he was undergoing treatments for heart problems,   namely cardiomyopathy ,  and died on 11 September In response to his death, the Government of Indonesia announced a three-day national mourning period starting on 12 September, and announced that the Indonesian flag is to be flown at half-staff during the period.
Habibie was married to Hasri Ainun Besari , a medical doctor , from 12 May until her death on 22 May Their wedding was held in Javanese and Gorontalese culture.
The book was adapted into a film of the same name which was released on 20 December Habibie received several honorary degrees for his contributions in the fields of technology and science, e. Timor-Leste named a bridge and park after Habibie shortly before his death. As vice president, and later president of Indonesia, he was automatically bestowed the highest class of all civilian and military Star Decorations , namely: .
Habibie has been portrayed in several biopic movies based on both his political and personal life. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the surname, see Habibie surname. Hasri Ainun Besari m. Engineer aviation industrialist politician. Play media. Main article: Post-Suharto era. BJ Habibie, Mutiara dari Timur. The idea of Indonesia. Penerbit Serambi. THC Mandiri. Ibu Indonesia dalam kenangan. Bentang Pustaka. Makmur PT Balai Pustaka Persero.
Habibie: nauwe band met Delft - TU Delta. Indonesian Aerospace. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 30 October Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. Archived from the original on 27 September Lexington Books. The Economist. Retrieved 11 September Towards a Peaceful Solution in East Timor. Sydney: East Timor Relief Association.
B. J. Habibie
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Habibie Bacakan Puisi di Makam Ainun
Less than three months after his inauguration as the seventh vice president in March , he succeeded Suharto who resigned after 31 years in office. His presidency is seen as a landmark and transition to the Reformation era. Upon becoming president, he liberalized Indonesia's press and political party laws, and held an early democratic election three years sooner than scheduled, which resulted in the end of his presidency. His day presidency and day vice presidency are the shortest in the country's history. Habibie was a native of Parepare , in South Sulawesi. Tuti Marini Puspowardojo,  a Javanese noblewoman from Yogyakarta ,  met while studying in Bogor. He was the fourth of eight children.
Habibie & Ainun
The film, released on 20 December , drew the largest theatrical audience to date in Indonesian cinema history with 4. The film was followed by a prequel, Rudy Habibie in , with Rahadian reprising his role. This is a story about finding one's soul mate. A story about finding one's first love and last love. A story about Indonesia's third president and his wife.