EUMOPS PEROTIS PDF

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The distribution of the western mastiff bat is patchy. It can be found from the coast of the southwestern United States into central Mexico and southeast to Cuba. The northern limit of its range is the southern half of California. In the United States it extends southeast into western Texas through southern Nevada and southwestern Arizona. The southern limit of its range is in Argentina.

This species is non-migratory Hall, , Allen, , Cockrum, Suitable habitat for the western mastiff bat consists of extensive open areas with potential roost locations having vertical faces to drop off from and take flight, such as crevices in rock outcropings and cliff faces, tunnels and tall buildings.

This species inhabits various types of open, semi-arid to arid habitats. These include coastal and desert scrublands, annual and perennial grasslands, conifer and deciduous woodlands, as well as palm oases Ahlborn, ; Cockrum, ; Allen, Eumops perotis is easily identified by large ears united across the top of its skull and projecting about 10 mm beyond its snout.

It is the largest molossid in North America. Characteristic to the family Molossidae, its wings are distinctively long but rather narrow. Their flight membranes are tough and leathery. This is a free-tailed bat whith relatively large feet. Its pelage is short, velvety, and whitish at the roots. Coloration is dark to greyish brown dorsally and more pale ventrally.

Both sexes of the western mastiff bat possess a peculiar dermal gland on the throat which looks like a pouch and produces an odoriferous secretion, athough this gland is much more developed in the males Ahlborn, ; Texas Tech, ; Allen, Males attract females with secretions from their enlarged dermal gland during the mating season.

Males and females of this species remain together throughout the year, including the period when young are produced. Mating occurs in early spring when the dermal gland of adult males is most functional and the testes enlarge and descend.

Normally only one young is produced per pregnancy, with twins being very rare. Eumops perotis is a eutherian with a gestation period of approximately 80 to 90 days. The offspring are dull black in color at birth and are naked, except for tactile hairs on the feet and face. The period of parturition usually extends from June into July, varying more than for any other bat in the United States. A nursery colony of these bats may contain young ranging from newborn individuals to ones already several weeks old.

Nursery roosts are located in tight rock crevices or holes in buildings at least 90 cm deep and 5 cm wide Texas Tech, ; Ahlborn, Males remain with females during the period when young are produced but it is uncertain what degree of assistance in care they actually provide.

Some roost sites are occupied throughout the year although different seasons are usually spent at different sites. Roost entrances are typically horizontally oriented with moderately large openings and face downward so that they can be entered from below.

Western mastiff bats seeks out roosts below which there is an unobstructed drop of several meters allowing for sufficient momentum to become airborne to be achieved when they take off. Eumops perotis exhibits yearlong nocturnal activity and generally goes into daily torpor from December through February, maintaining foraging activity at night except when temperatures drop below 5 degrees C.

Western mastiff bats are capable of fast and prolonged flight but can not get airborne from the ground. They will scramble up a post or tree in order to achieve a minimum height of some 5 m necessary for launching into flight. Their colonies are small, usually numbering fewer than members, and adult males can be found in maternity colonies Cockrum, ; Texas Tech, ; Ahlborn, Western mastiff bats feed primarily on insects which they catch in flight.

These bats rarely utilize night roosts and feed at night, with foraging ranges exceeding 24 km from roost sites, and a long foraging period of 6 to 7 hours. Prey includes relatively small, low-flying, and weak-flying insects. They usually feed from ground to tree-level but may soar to heights of some 60 m in rugged terrain. It is interesting to note that flightless insects, including ants and crickets, comprise part of their diet even though these bats are unable to take off from the ground, requiring that the prey be snatched up as the bat flies by.

These prey items are likely to be taken from surfaces such as canyon walls Cockrum ; Texas Tech, ; Ahlborn, Some insect prey include: moths, crickets, grasshoppers, bees, dragonflies, leafbugs, beetles, true bugs, ants and wasps. Eumops perotis is an insectivore feeding primarily on flying insects.

Western mastiff bats feed on various insects and may play a role in controlling their populations, hence decreasing losses to agricultural products upon which these insects feed.

This species sometimes roosts in high buildings or tunnels where it can be an unsightly nuisance. Apparently, litte data is available for the current status of this bat species. Bat Conservation International lists Eumops perotis on its Threatened and Endangered Bats List due to the the fact that it uses only select drinking sites and is severely limited by the availability of drinking water. Because its wing structure is adapted for fast and straight-line flight, it is unable to drink from water sources less than 30 m long.

As a consequence, western mastiff bats are no longer found in many previously occupied areas and populations may be in decline Acker, The fungus, Geomyces destructans , grows best in cold, humid conditions that are typical of many bat hibernacula.

The fungus grows on, and in some cases invades, the bodies of hibernating bats and seems to result in disturbance from hibernation, causing a debilitating loss of important metabolic resources and mass deaths. While there are currently no reports of Eumops perotis mortalities as a result of white-nose syndrome, the disease continues to expand its range in North America. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. Found in coastal areas between 30 and 40 degrees latitude, in areas with a Mediterranean climate.

Vegetation is dominated by stands of dense, spiny shrubs with tough hard or waxy evergreen leaves. May be maintained by periodic fire.

In South America it includes the scrub ecotone between forest and paramo. More specifically refers to a group of organisms in which members act as specialized subunits a continuous, modular society - as in clonal organisms. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants.

In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.

Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a now extinct synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds. Acker, E, Ahlborn, G, Allen, T. B, Family Molossidae. Washington, D. C: The National Geographic Society. Cockrum, E. Arizona Academy of Sciences : Cryan, P. Hall, E. The Mammals of North America.

National Park Service, Wildlife Health. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. To cite this page: Chebes, L. Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts.

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Eumops perotis western bonneted bat Facebook. Geographic Range The distribution of the western mastiff bat is patchy. Biogeographic Regions nearctic native neotropical native Habitat Suitable habitat for the western mastiff bat consists of extensive open areas with potential roost locations having vertical faces to drop off from and take flight, such as crevices in rock outcropings and cliff faces, tunnels and tall buildings.

Habitat Regions terrestrial Terrestrial Biomes desert or dune chaparral forest scrub forest Other Habitat Features urban suburban Range elevation 5 to m Other Physical Features endothermic bilateral symmetry Average mass 57 g 2.

Mating System polygynous Males and females of this species remain together throughout the year, including the period when young are produced. Key Behaviors nocturnal motile social colonial Communication and Perception Perception Channels tactile chemical Food Habits Western mastiff bats feed primarily on insects which they catch in flight.

Primary Diet carnivore insectivore Animal Foods insects Ecosystem Roles Eumops perotis is an insectivore feeding primarily on flying insects. Economic Importance for Humans: Positive Western mastiff bats feed on various insects and may play a role in controlling their populations, hence decreasing losses to agricultural products upon which these insects feed.

Positive Impacts controls pest population Economic Importance for Humans: Negative This species sometimes roosts in high buildings or tunnels where it can be an unsightly nuisance. Conservation Status Apparently, litte data is available for the current status of this bat species. Glossary Nearctic living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World.

Neotropical living in the southern part of the New World.

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Species Profiles

Pronunciation: you -mops per- oh -tis. The greater bonneted bat is the largest bat in the U. It is found in California, Nevada, Arizona, Texas and Mexico though it is rarely encountered in large numbers. Almost nothing is known about the behavior or status of western mastiff bats.

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Western mastiff bat

The distribution of the western mastiff bat is patchy. It can be found from the coast of the southwestern United States into central Mexico and southeast to Cuba. The northern limit of its range is the southern half of California. In the United States it extends southeast into western Texas through southern Nevada and southwestern Arizona. The southern limit of its range is in Argentina.

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Eumops perotis

The western mastiff bat Eumops perotis , also known as the western bonneted bat , the greater mastiff bat , or the greater bonneted bat , is a member of the free-tailed bat family, Molossidae. The subspecies Eumops perotis californicus is a species of concern as identified by the U. Fish and Wildlife Service. The range of this subspecies is principally southwest desert regions of the United States, along the border with Mexico; however, the range extends as far north on the Pacific coast to Alameda County , California.

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The western bonneted bat Eumops perotis , also known as the Greater mastiff bat and the Western mastiff bat, is the largest bat in North America. Its wings are distinctively long but narrow, which does not allow much maneuverability around objects. It is a free-tailed bat that has large feet, and the pelage is short and velvety. The upper parts are brown to grayish brown with bases of the hairs being whitish, the under parts of the bat are paler.

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