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Distribution of ectoparasites of Canis lupus familiaris L. Carnivora: Canidae from Panama. To determine the distribution of ectoparasites in dogs in Panama. Materials and methods.

There were surveyed canines belonging to 57 communities. Dogs from lowlands showed a higher percentage of parasitism and a greater biodiversity of parasites than dogs from highlands. There were found seven species of ticks, four species of fleas, two species of lice, and one specie of botfly.

The ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Amblyomma cajennense , A. The flea species Rhopalopsyllus cacicus and the tick Haemaphysalis juxtakochi were found for the first time in panamanian dogs. The environmental situation in Panama, can encourage that wildlife ectoparasites parasitized dogs in absence of their native hosts.

This condition may increase transmission risk of some diseases where the ticks and fleas are vectors. Se examinaron individuos en 57 comunidades. Se encontraron siete especies de garrapatas, cuatro de pulgas, dos de piojos y una de mosca. Las garrapatas Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Amblyomma cajennense , A. Dogs were the first animal species to be domesticated by humans and have been used extensively as hunters, protection purposes and as food 1, 2.

The domestication process took place in several isolated geographic localities over a period of many centuries, producing the diversity of breeds that we know today 3. Presently, dogs are considered pets instead of wild animals, and live in close association with humans.

The domestication of the dog also created new ecological interactions between the ectoparasites of these canines and humans, exposing people to new pathogenic agents. There are many ectoparasites of dogs that serve as reservoirs, vectors, or intermediate hosts for pathogenic bacteria, fungi and metazoan parasites e. Bacteria such as Rickettsia rickettsii , Rickettsia felis , Ehrlichia chaffeensis and parasitic helminths like Dipylidium caninum and Hymelonepis nana , are examples of microorganisms that are associated with ectoparasites of dogs and that also can affect humans 4.

Studies of ectoparasites of panamanian dogs are scarce. The only complete checklist was published in in the "Ectoparasites of Panama", by Fairchild et al 5 and there have been no other published studies on this subject.

The objective of this paper is to present new data regarding the distribution of the ectoparasites infesting Panamanian dogs and to describe their ecological relationships. Study site. From June April , we collected ectoparasites from dogs representing 57 communities in Panama Figura 1 as part of a larger effort from several different research projects see acknowledgement. The selection of dogs depended on the owners consent.

Conservation of ectoparasites. Identification of ectoparasites. For the identification we using published descriptions for ticks 5, 6 , lice 7 , fleas 8. The highest prevalence of parasitism was observed in dogs from suburban and rural localities in lowlands altitude: meters. Dogs from highland towns presented a much lower prevalence. Dogs from lowland towns exhibited a greater richness of ectoparasites than conspecifics from the highlands Table 2. Seven species of ticks, four species of fleas, two species of lice and one botfly were observed Table 2.

The only species that it could raise was Amblyomma cajennense. The species with greatest distributions were the flea Ctenocephalides felis and the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. The tick, Ixodes boliviensis and the fleas Pulex simulans and Rhopalopsyllus cacicus , were restricted to high-lands.

Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. This species was introduced to the New World from Old World dogs and infest multiple species of Carnivores with domestic cats and dogs being the preferred hosts 9. According to Guglielmone et al 9 , the development of this tick, including an extra-parasite cycle after feeding, enables it to spread to new localities and infest new host, including humans. This close proximity to humans makes R. In Panama, genetic material of R.

In this study, we found the co-existence of R. The frequency of co-existence of R. In contrast to R. This species show a preference for disturbed areas, especially sites where deforestation creates habitats that are more adequate for their establishment In Latin American, A.

In Panama, A. In this study, nymphs and adults of A. The co-existence of R. Dogs in communities close to forest were often used for hunting wild animals and this function may explain the infestations of dogs by these ticks. Immature stages from these species parasitize mostly small mammals and birds while adults infest medium to large-sized mammals, including dogs 5, 9.

The tick parasitism on domestic animals could allow alternate conditions for the establishment of new pathogens in humans populations increasing the associated risks for pathogen transmission. This is the first record of H. Former records of this species include host as Nasua nasua , tapirs, deer and the porcupine Coendou rothschildi 5, 9. Ixodes boliviensis was only found in rural communities within an elevation of meters. Fairchild et al 5 stated that this species was most common in dogs from altitudes close to meters feet ; however, during this study, we found did not find any I.

Instead, we observed R. Differences between these studies can be explained by the increases in human populations in those communities that have created conditions favorable for the establishment of R. In contrast to highlands communities as Boquete, Volcan and Cerro Punta Table 2 , which have also experienced a significant increase in human populations, only I. Even though the possibility of infested dogs with R. The Costa Rican localities from the Province of Cartago Puricil and Tapanti have altitudes between and meters.

In these areas, I. These differences in the distribution between R. A city with wide urban zones provides more opportunities for R. Similarly, these conditions minimize opportunities for the establishment of I. Additionally, high levels of urbanization increase the local temperature and influences general weather patterns; conditions that also favor the establishment of R. Ctenocephalides felis maintain a wide distribution across Panama, it was found on every dog from urban, suburban and rural localities within meters.

A previous study showed that C. In contrast, C. Pulex similans were captured exclusively on dogs from Boquete and co-exists with I. To distinguish these species, we used the aedeagus, the main morphological character proposed by Smit We reviewed this character in specimens of P. Rhopalopsyllus cacicus was only found in dogs from Boquete.

Our observation represents the first geographical record of this ectoparasite for Panamanian dogs. Previously, these authors registered R. On the other hand, Trichodectes canis and Heterodoxus spiniger were collected from dogs from Central Provinces and Darien.

These records provide new data regarding the distribution of these ectoparasites in Panama. The only previously reported site was Panama City. Trichodectes canis is a primary ectoparasite of Canidae , and maintains a close relationship with its host 4.

This species infests dogs, coyotes, foxes and wolves in different regions from America 7 , whereas in Europe Check Republic , it has been found on Nyctereutes procyonoides 19 , demonstrating its adaptability to parasites wild canids. Unlike T. These lice are primarily parasites of marsupials e.

This species is Pantropical, nevertheless, its distribution in many Neotropicals countries is poorly documented During this study, Dermatobia hominis was the only species found to be causing myiasis in dogs. The parasitism is commonly associated with towns near forests of other wooded sites.

In conclusion, the environmental situation in Panama, can encourage that wildlife ectoparasites parasitized dogs in absence of their native hosts.

This condition may increase transmission risk of some diseases where the ticks and fleas are vectors as ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis. Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science ; J Arch Sci ; 36 2 Brasil: Fapesp.

The ticks of Panama. In: Ectoparasites of Panama. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History; The chewing lice world checklist and biological overview. The fleas of Panama Siphonaptera. Ectoparasites of Panama. Argentina: Inst Nac Tec Agrop; Child J, Paddock C.


GL3: Control of Ectoparasites in Dogs and Cats

Flea and ticks species from dogs in urban and rural areas in four districts in Chile. Pulgas y garrapatas en perros urbanos y rurales en cuatro regiones en Chile. Valdivia, Chile. Fleas and ticks frequently parasitise canines worldwide and their prevalence in dogs is influenced by many factors including climate and geography, among others. Different studies worldwide have shown no clear pattern of an urban or rural preference by different species of fleas and ticks infesting dogs.


Distribucion de los ectoparasitos de Canis lupus familiaris L. (Carnivora: Canidae) de Panama

Distribution of ectoparasites of Canis lupus familiaris L. Carnivora: Canidae from Panama. To determine the distribution of ectoparasites in dogs in Panama. Materials and methods.





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