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Published by AGP Research. The position of women in Turkish culture is a tricky one to observe. The situation is loaded with many layers of interesting and tension-generating capacity: an overwhelmingly Muslim society based on the equality of genders since its foundation. We believe that it presents a very interesting case study.
The articles in this volume have been chosen with an eye to giving the reader an idea of the current state of the mainstream of contemporary Turkish Academia on the question of women, women studies and family. Therefore, we have not included any hackwork. We hope that this will be an important contribution to the growing field of humanities in Turkey and elsewhere.
Except for these superficial changes, the text is always that of the author. It may vary according to countries experiencing problems faced by women entrepreneurs. These changes occur due to; socio-cultural structure of the country, economy, geography, traditions and the politics of the government. In solution to this issues; unification of women entrepreneurs and organising among themselves, would be much effective.
However, this process of religious belief in the solution of problems are thought to be effective. Short- psychological gains such as individual inde- ly, an entrepreneur is defined as a person who pendence, satisfaction, pleasure, and sociologi- makes innovations or progresses by taking the cal gains such as an economic prize like money, risk.
Hence, entrepreneurship introduces society wealth, income, and social status, reputation, to new sources, new technologies, thus, the and power.
The reason why ship to develop in a society. In reality, cultural societies develop entrepreneurship and encour- values and social traditions play a role in who age it is not only a case of generating employ- ment and preventing poverty but, probably the  B.
As in every field, women encoun- and takes an action to create something. In or- ter various problems in entrepreneurship. While der to become an entrepreneur, one has to have these problems may arise from the socialidenti- a business idea and knowledge accumulation ty and obligations of women, it may also arise about that business. An entrepreneur needs There are approaches which are considered to an accumulation of the certain capital.
These may be savings under the pillow or borrowing loans. In this national economy by employing workers and study carried out, the effect of religious beliefs producing. A woman entrepreneur is defined as someone who can take calculated risks in the market economy, who produces and sells directly mar- ket-oriented products and services which can be 2.
However, the social security institutions or who is an employ- enterprises in this direction are not perceived as er employing other people. Entrepreneurship in the social sense the Society and Economy has to include activities which are within the market economics, directly market-oriented and Especially since the s, women have be- which can be turned into profit.
In this study, a gun to participate in the economy as proprietors. Sunar ve H. Within this context, the Directorate their knowledge and talents and become inde- General on the Status and Problems of Women pendent.
It is known that the increase in the DGSPW established in undertook the number of entrepreneur women will have ef- studies on assisting women entrepreneurs in fects which provide benefits for the economy solving the problems they encounter in their and society such as generating employment, working life, encouraging entrepreneurship, increasing individual and social wealth. In , status but also affects the economic develop- one of the Ministries of State was assigned to ment of the country in a negative way.
The Ministry of State Revealing the entrepreneurial power of wom- pertaining to the problems of women carries out en and putting it to good use contribute in two the functions of determining general politics aspects. The first of these contributions is that it and macro objectives in regard to women and feeds and strengthens the economy by generat- carrying out regular studies in this field. On the other hand, non- governmental organisations which undertake important purposes as forming a public opinion 4.
The trepreneurs whose qualities and problems are non-governmental organisations established to different, they should be encouraged and di- support women entrepreneurs in Turkey main- rected. There are public organisations, non- tain their existence  governmental organisations and private sector The Women Entrepreneurs Association of representatives from which women entrepre- Turkey KAGIDER established in ,for neurs can receive support for the solution of the women entrepreneurs to gain increasingly much problems that they may encounter during their place in the business world, be included in the activities as the increase in the number of wom- communication network between the entrepre- en entrepreneurs, being supported in their neurs, also for women entrepreneurs in Turkey works.
Moreover, it is considered that the pre- to get into the international markets and con- tribute to the socioeconomic development of the country, has become an important support [ 6 ] E. The association is the first national İ. The  N. Yelkikalan ve A. The Women Entrepreneurs Association the economic and social life. The long-term established in aims to provide education, purpose of the association is stated as creating capacity enhancement support, internship op- the world in which women have an active part portunities at enterprises in EU countries, and in all decision processes by producing and ex- support for women entrepreneurs to actualize hibiting their presence freely.
These are as follows; 1. To increase the number of women in 5. Religious Beliefs and Women in Islam the business life and encourage the women entrepreneurs to be supported, Religion plays a role from different aspects in 2. To provide education and mentorship determining the social problems and solving for women to enter the business life and them. In the life perception of 4. It does not 5. To support the influence areas and seem possible for an individual to be happy and growth of KAGIDER members by sup- live well without having morally good behav- iours as in the altruism.
Similarly, in the Jewish porting their individual and occupation- tradition, in Islam and in various Eastern reli- based developments. To motivate young women to partici- ing and helping each other . Holy Allah informed through Prophets to direct 7. To increase the recognition and reputa- people towards goodness [ 12 ]. These are; Judaism 8. To become a reference point at the na- based on the Torah sent to Moses; Christianity tional and international levels by pro- based on the Bible sent to Jesus Christ, and Is- ducing content and technology studies lam based on the Quran sent to Muhammad.
According to tions and non-governmental organisations. Aslan, Derleyen: P. Ac- husband is in need, if the woman has cording to the Quran, the owner of the religion other property of her own, she has full is solely Allah. The religion is a divine and uni- ownership and disposition of it by her- versal institution established and protected by self. She has the authority to increase, Allah. The duties and greatness of prophets donate, and rent her property by trade. Indeed, the basis of the teachings her husband for these.
Religion is one of the most important factors Within this context, it is possible to say that it which affect the culture of the society. Religion encourages them to be engaged in entrepreneur- does not only affect the culture of the society ial activities. One of the first scientists who ex- and in every field as men do. Because regard- pressed that religious values made way for the less of the rights given to women, it is such a entrepreneurial values is Max Weber[ 16 ].
Because Allah has made on superior to the other. And also because 6. It is possible to KAGIDER, which operates as a non- derive two meanings from the ayat: governmental organisation in the development 1. Men are responsible for the maintenance of women entrepreneurship, has supported the and taking care of the needs of women.
Although a woman is not a Muslim, a Anatolia as well. Afyonkarahisar Business- man cannot interfere with her religion. She has no obligation also board chairwoman of the association, is to prepare dowry with this. Atay vd.
In May , the number of its B, p. Marangoz, a. The Purpose of the Qualitative Study Done to establish an association to reach people and with AFIKAD institutions with whom they are not able to work together as required by the legislation in It was attempted to determine the role of reli- the first degree, work on a project, apply it, and gious beliefs in solving the problems women create financial solutions to the activities.
The association members 7. As it is known, as the deficiencies of a formation in the social life In this study, the content analysis method emerge, new formations are needed.
It will be possi- who are the members of the association also ble to arrange the social realities of the findings take part in the service sector. However, the obtained through carrying out a qualitative association plans to incorporate women who study descriptively. With this method, it will be operate in every business line.
The occupations ensured to get knowledge about the words used of the current members comprise manager, in the discussion and the frequency of their use, pharmacist, attorney, civil engineer, Microsoft and subjects in the subconscious. The content IT engineer, special training specialist, tailor, analysis is used to compare the documents, in- fashion designer, city planner, instructor, interi- terview notes.
Its purpose is to define the extent or architect and bio-engineer. The accumulation and experience of every business concept of the content analysis has the qualities line are the points in question, and it is consid- of neutrality, systematicity, and generality. They were asked to the social, cultural and educational problems of write their opinions about this subject on a pa- working women and women entrepreneurs who per. The data were obtained in the meeting are committed to the democracy and principals which 8 of 22 members were able to attend.
The long-term purpose of the as- sociation is expressed as ensuring the participa- tion of first of all women, and disadvantageous 7. The inability to apply it in different cities or regions is among its limitations. It is 7. The Role of Religion in Solving the possible to carry out complementary studies by Problems of Women Entrepreneurs: taking these limitations into consideration.
The Findings of the Qualitative Study Done due of others. Member 1: As a woman entrepreneur, she Member 5: The woman entrepreneur expressed complains about the immoral approaches of the that her religious beliefs were effective in her people dealt with in the male-dominant enter- job-related motivation but she exerted herself to prises.