THE DUAL MANDATE IN BRITISH TROPICAL AFRICA PDF

The dual mandate is an expression of the fundamental principles of European imperialism in tropical Africa as theorized by Sir Frederick Lugard — , the best known of the British colonial officers to serve in Africa. In his most important work on British imperialism, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa , Lugard craftily articulated the basis for European imperial design in Africa and the dynamics of the colonial administrative system of indirect rule. In Lugard's discourse, European imperialism rested on the premise that the resources of Africa, perceived dormant, could be productively marshaled and utilized by the more technologically advanced imperial nations of Europe for the mutual benefits of the colonizer and the colonized. Lugard argued that Africa's enormous resources lay wasted not only because Africans did not recognize their uses and value, but also because they did not possess the know-how to develop and exploit them. Lugard's thesis ascribed to imperial Europe a fundamental right to Africa's "wasted bounties of nature," and also the responsibility of holding them in trust and developing them for the benefit of humankind.

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His The Dual Mandate , first published in , became a handbook for all British administrators in tropical Africa, and influenced British colonial policies across the continent. It offered a comprehensive evaluation of the nature and challenges of British rule in Africa.

To shield British spheres of influence from external intrusion, the British Foreign Office declared them as Protectorates. Territories acquired through conquest, cession, settlement, or annexation were designated as Crown Colonies. Apart from east and southern Africa, where the terrain and temperate weather offered convenient habitation to European settlers, the African tropics held few incentives for white settlers.

However, the region provided abundant sources of raw materials and markets for manufactured goods. Decentralization at all levels of government, with a strong coordinating authority in the center, allowed for greater efficiency. Continuity was vital because Africans trusted foreigners reluctantly.

Therefore, effective British officers should retain their posts without undue interruptions. Decentralization and continuity could only be achieved if cooperation existed within the administrative chains, especially between the provincial staff and local rulers. Early 20th-century European poses with African Pigmies Wikimedia. Lugard writes in a clear style. His book is a masterpiece of literature and policymaking, though contemporary readers will find his defense of British colonialism in Africa racist and paternalistic.

Secondly, he argued that Britain practiced a beneficent regime that taught Africans the value of freedom and liberty, hence their desire for independence. Nonetheless, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa is illuminating for readers seeking to understand the foundations of British colonial policies in Africa.

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The dual mandate in British tropical Africa

His The Dual Mandate , first published in , became a handbook for all British administrators in tropical Africa, and influenced British colonial policies across the continent. It offered a comprehensive evaluation of the nature and challenges of British rule in Africa. To shield British spheres of influence from external intrusion, the British Foreign Office declared them as Protectorates. Territories acquired through conquest, cession, settlement, or annexation were designated as Crown Colonies. Apart from east and southern Africa, where the terrain and temperate weather offered convenient habitation to European settlers, the African tropics held few incentives for white settlers.

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The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, by Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (1965)

The name 'Dealtry' was in honour of Thomas Dealtry , a friend of his father. When she rejected him, Lugard decided to make a fresh start in Africa. Around , a group of Swahili traders under Mlozi bin Kazbadema established trading bases in the north-west sector of Lake Malawi , including a stockade at Chilumba on the lake from where ivory and slaves could be shipped across the lake. In the African Lakes Company set up a base in Karonga to exchange ivory for trade goods from these Swahili merchants.

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