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Reinaldo J. Villada y Jorge E. A review on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent for the bioactive compounds extraction present in vegetables of current and potential use in agroindustrial processes is presented. A description of the extraction with soxhlet, which is used to evaluate the yield in extract and in extraction time of traditional and modern extraction methods is done.
Extraction with supercritical fluids is described, operation conditions are showed and bioactive principles extracted from different vegetables raw material reported in the international literature are described. To better described the applications of supercritical fluids in the agroindustry, these are classified in five well defined groups. This allows to get a clear global idea about the possibilities offered by the supercritical fluids to improve the competitiveness of the agroindustry.
Keywords : carbon dioxide, supercritical extraction, soxhlet extraction, agroindustry. El uso de solventes alternativos tales como: isopropanol, etanol, hidrocarburos, e incluso el agua, se ha incrementado debido a asuntos del medioambiente, la salud, y a preocupaciones de seguridad.
Los costos de los solventes alternativos pueden ser superiores. Algunos solventes usados con el Soxhlet convencional se han cuestionado recientemente debido a su toxicidad n-hexano. El primer proceso comercial publicado para el fraccionamiento de grasas usando FSC fue el proceso Solexol. Otros investigadores estudiaron el fraccionamiento continuo de grasa de leche en una torre rellena con reflujo.
Obtuvieron fracciones de grasa de diferente funcionalidad y menor contenido en colesterol Lim y Rizvi, Nuez Moscada Myristica fragans H. Hinojo Foeniculum vulgare M. Germany www. Son plantas que poseen extractores de L, operan bajo procesos discontinuos o semicontinuos y trabajan con diferentes materias primas Del Valle et al, Cascara de pistacho Pistachia vera. Rizomas de Ginger Zingiber officinale R. Romero Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Semillas de Cilantro Coriander sativum. Yerba Buena Hierochloe odorata. Bulbo de Clavo Eugenia caryophillus. Eucalipto Eucalyptus tereticornis. Manzanilla Chamomilla recutita L. Pimienta Lippia sidoides C. Pimienta Negra Piper nigrum L. Tomillo Thymus vulgaris. Pimienta Capsicum annuum L.
Stevia Stevia rebaudiana B. Curcuma Curcuma longa L. Saengcharoenrat y Guyer Corcho Quercus suber L. Otras extracciones y aplicaciones. Algunos investigadores colombianos han publicado resultados de trabajos sobre extracciones de plantas nativas con FSC Stashenko et al. Alavi, S. Harriott, Process dynamics of starch-based microcellular foams produced by supercritical fluid extrusion, I: model development, Food Research Intern.
Harriott, Process dynamics of starch-based microcellular foams produced by supercritical fluid extrusion. II: Numerical simulation and experimental evaluation , Food Research International, 36 4 , a.
Grenier, Distribution of cholesterol in milk fat fractions , J. Dairy Res. Sahasrabudhe, Fractionation of anhydrous milk fat by superficial carbon dioxide, J.
Food Sci. Cooney, Measurement and model prediction of solubilities of pure fatty acids, pure triglycerides and mixtures of triglycerides in CO 2 SC, J.
Data, 33, Lampante, Olive oil refining with supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Oil Chem. Ferreira, Experimental data and modeling the supercritical fluid extraction of marigold Calendula officinalis oleoresin , J. Nunes da Ponte, Scaleup of a supercritical extraction unit for the deacidification of olive oil, High Press.
Cassanova, Extractives of cork Quecus suber L. Industrial Crops and products, 21, Meireles, Supercritical CO 2 extraction of curmumins and essential oil from the rhizomes of turmeric Curcuma longa L. Correa y A. Brunner, A process line for the production of raffinated rice oil from rice bran, J. Fluids, 34 2 , Maloney, 7 th edition, McGraw-Hill, section 18, pp De La Fuente. Damian, Contributions to supercritical extraction of vegetable substrates in Latin America , J. Food Eng.
Food Agric. Fluids, 25, a. Zetzl, C. Langer, Bacterial inactivation by using near and supercritical carbon dioxide, Medical Sci. Houllemar, Supercritical CO 2 extraction for total fat analysis of food products , J. Meireles, Modeling the supercritical fluid extraction of black pepper Piper nigrum L. Editorial Continental, S. Schwarz, CO 2 -extracts from rosemary and sage , Food Mark. Rizvi, Mechanical properties of proteinstabilized starch-based supercritical fluids extrudates, Int.
Food Properties, 3 1 , Barzegar y M. Sahara, Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of pistachio Pistachia vera hull extracts , Food Chemistry, 92, Eskilsson, Comparison of different extraction techniques for isolation of antioxidants from sweet grass Hierochloe odorata , J. Fluids, 33, Pyle, y K. Niranjan, Extraction of rice bran oil using aqueous media, J. Reglero, Isolation and separation of tocopherols from ol ive by products with supercritical fluids, J.
Toledo, Twin-screw extrusion at low temperature with carbon dioxide injection to assist expansion: extrudate characteristics, J. Christen, Recent extraction techniques for natural products: Microwaveassisted extraction and pressurized solvent extraction , Phytochem.
Pordesimo, L. Weiss, High intensity ultrasoundassisted extraction of oil from soybeans, Food Research International, 37, Rizvi, Continuous supercritical fluid processing of anhydrous milk fat in a packed column , J. Friedrich y J. Pominski, Characterization and processing of cottonseed oil obtained by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide, J.
Garcia-Ayuso, Soxhlet extraction of solid materials: An outdated technique with a promising innovative future , Anal. Acta, , Luque de Castro, Ultrasoundassisted Soxhlet extraction: An expeditive approach for solid sample treatment-Application to the extraction of total fat from oleaginous seeds , J.
A, , Liu, First approach on rice bran oil extraction using limonene , Eur. Lipid Sci. Valcarcel, Automatic microgravimetric determination of fats in milk products by use of supercritical fluid extraction with on-line piezoelectric detection, J.
Marques y M. Meireles, Multicomponent model to describe extraction of ginger oleoresin with supercritical carbon dioxide, Ind. Meireles, Supercritical fluid extraction from fennel Foeniculum vulgare : global yield, composition and kinetic data, J. Fluids, 35 3 , Hudson, Partition coefficients for fatty acid esters in supercritical fluid CO 2 with and without ethanol , J.
Cancer, 36 10 , Yener, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of hazelnut oil. F, Progress in packed column supercritical fluid chromatography: materials and methods, J.
Post-lab Práctica 3 Y 4 Extracción De Cafeína
Reinaldo J. Villada y Jorge E. A review on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent for the bioactive compounds extraction present in vegetables of current and potential use in agroindustrial processes is presented. A description of the extraction with soxhlet, which is used to evaluate the yield in extract and in extraction time of traditional and modern extraction methods is done. Extraction with supercritical fluids is described, operation conditions are showed and bioactive principles extracted from different vegetables raw material reported in the international literature are described. To better described the applications of supercritical fluids in the agroindustry, these are classified in five well defined groups.
extracción de cafeina
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering , Tea, the most popular beverage in the East, has attracted much interest from scientists due to its beneficial health ef- fects . Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Teas are classified into three major categories based on how they are manufactured as follows: a unfer- mented green tea, b partially fermented Oolong tea, and c fully fermented black tea [7,8].